There are factors that can increase or decrease a seed's viability, such as proper storage. However, this chart is a great guide.
What seeds will do well in your growing area will depend on your growing zone. If you are in the greater Kansas City area, you are in zone 6.
Huge thanks to Kansas State University for this planting calendar for zone 6. They also offer a fantastic 80-pg Gardening Guide that was created for the Kansas area. It can be found by clicking this link: Kansas Garden Guide
Growing your own fruits & vegetables also involves managing pests & diseases. For a specific guide on tomato disease, check out this publication Tomato Diseases.
This is more technical information, but it is good to understand that not all crops like to be grown in the same soil. For a good starter guide on making compost check out this 4-pg PDF file: Compost
Another website that has a wealth of information on composting is http://www.soilfoodweb.com/Article.html.